Blog Assignment Part III

         Sensory Neuron and Cardiac muscle cell interaction

           [DEVANAND GOSYNE as Cardiac muscle cell (]


 The brain and the heart are always communicating. Messages are sent for the heart to pump blood around the body, as well as adjusting the action potential to apply more or less force for blood to flow efficiently in the body. Of course it’s bad news when a disease affects one of us.

A nervous system disease known as Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord. It damages the material that surrounds the myelin sheath that protects the nerve cells. This causes multiple symptoms in the body, one including muscle weakness. Since the nerve cell is left exposed it is prone to damage. This means it cannot communicate with the cardiac muscle efficiently which causes the muscle to weaken from improper functioning which can lead to blood circulatory problems and also lead to cardiovascular disease.

          Sensory Neuron and Liver cell interaction

              [KERSIAH AKINLANA as Liver cell (]


 This interaction is very interesting. The liver is responsible for converting fats into sugar to maintain blood sugar levels. 60% of the brain is fat with 30% being DHA and 30% being EPA which is active in the body. Alzheimer’s disease is a liver disease that causes one to have less DHA in the brain. This is because the disease causes the liver to have an insufficient enzyme system and cannot convert the plant based omega 3 for the brain to use.



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1&2 (3rd edition) by D.J. Taylor, N.P.O Green, G.W Stout



GROUP MEMBERS:  Devanand Gosyne, Daneil Sookdeo, Ajala Wallace, Nefertitii Bain                 

a) Being a sensory neuron in the brain never gets lonely for me. There are literally thousands of others like me and we all share connections with each other. You can probably imagine how easy it is for us to communicate. Our function is to receive information from the body externally or internally and communicate it to the brain in order to issue a response. We basically send information to each other by impulses. Let’s say for hypothetical reasons someone was to “accidentally” get shot. The sensory neurons immediately send a message called a stimulus to the brain. At this point the stimulus excites the neuron thus turning it into an action potential. This action potential travels from the dendrites to the axon which is covered by the myelin sheath. The action potential reaches the axon terminals (nerve endings), it causes the vesicles to release neurotransmitters, this is a chemical that cross the synapses (a small gap between neurons) and attach to the receptor of the other sensory neuron. This message travels from the area of the wound, to the spinal cord and to the brain. This is how someone knows they are in pain from being shot or in pain from anything. That is why when your figure touches something hot you immediately pull your hand away. These messages are sent within microseconds, this is necessary for quick responses. A sensory neuron can be as vary in size as it can reach from the brain to the leg of our mouse.

b) Linking with my on type of cell is fun but it’s also interesting to interacting with other cells such as the Olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). The ORN functions to detect chemicals using chemoreceptors enabling the organism to smell and taste. This allows for an ORN and a sensory neuron to interact perfectly. CO2 is a very common chemical in the air. While the ORN can help detect it in the air, it can also detect it in the blood as well. Having high amounts of CO2 in the blood can be troublesome. Once detected by the ORN, it sends a message to the brain via stimuli which is transported through the sensory neurons in the brain in order to have a response done in the organism to remove the unwanted chemicals. The hearts pumps blood with dissolved CO2 away from the rest of the body. Of course for the heat to pump the blood the cardiac muscle cells need to produce force and cause motion to the organ. The response from the brain sent from the ORN would pass from the sensory neurons to the motor neurons which innervate the cardiac muscle cell to have an action potential to apply more force in order for the heart to beat faster to remove the CO2 out of the blood by pumping it to the lungs. Therefore the sensory neuron interacts with ORN by using neurotransmitters and the cardiac heart muscle by using the motor neurons as a means of communication.





BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1&2 (3rd edition) by D.J. Taylor, N.P.O Green, G.W Stout

The Sensory Neuron (Introduction)


I am a brain cell known as the sensory neuron. In which brain you ask? I am in the brain of a mouse. Mice are useful in scientific research since the have a similar anatomy to humans as well as their genetics. Unlike other cells, I do not undergo cell division. I am generated by stem cells and have a long life span. I conduct electrical impulses in the central nervous system. Eventually I’ll be connected to a motor neuron who I will be working with. Although I live long I can still die by diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

Multiple Choice Questions # 2

Questions 1-11, choose the correct cell organelle listed below which corresponds to the function. Each answer may only be used once.

a) Cell membrane,  b) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER),  c) RIBOSOMES,  d) Mitochondria,  e) Golgi apparatus,  f) Lysosomes,  g) Microbodies,  h) Cell Wall,  i) Chloroplast,   j) Vacuole,  k) Nucleus


1) Removes metabolic waste (which is my there’s a lot in the liver). Has ribosomes attached to it for the synthesis of proteins and synthesizes lipids and sterols.

2) Acts as a power house for the cell (main source of energy) and is the site of aerobic respiration.

3) Contains digestive enzymes (hydrolytic) and breaks down molecules such as bacteria by the process phagocytosis.

4) Contains cell sap. It stores mineral salts, sugars, organic acid and waste products. It sometimes functions as a lysosome and contributes to the cell’s osmotic properties.

5) Large plastid (has inner and outer membrane) that contains chlorophyll used for photosynthesis in plants. Converts light energy into chemical energy.

6) Contains catalase and are associated with oxidation reactions and is the site of glyoxylate cycle in plants.

7) Processes and transports material such as proteins, hormones and enzymes. These processes take place in the cisternae. Transports the material to the surface membrane to be secreted and makes lysosomes.

8) Controls the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment.

9) Largest cell organelle, contains chromatin where DNA is organized into genes that control cell activity and manufactures ribosomes.

10) The smallest organelle in the cell and made up of RNA and proteins. They synthesize proteins. On the rough ER make proteins to move outside the cell and the free ribosomes make proteins for inside the cell.

11) Provides mechanical support and protection for the cell. Prevents osmotic bursting and cements neighbouring cells together using the middle lamella.

Publish Paper: How to make bug repellent

How to make bug repellent

Most bug sprays are made using synthetic chemicals such as DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Bug sprays are applied to the cloth or skin for protection against insects such as mosquitoes. Anyone can go to a store and pick up a can of bug spray to get rid of these insects but some may feel that the chemicals in these sprays are harmful to the human body, which they can be in high concentration. Lucky for them there are organic ways to make bug repellents at home for a relatively cheap price.

 By adding a table spoon of dish washing liquid to a spray bottle of water along with a few drops of peppermint oil is enough to kill these insects. The peppermint oil dissolves the hydrophobic waxy coating on the exoskeleton of the insect and the soap helps to dry them out. A faster way of making the repellent work is by adding coffee for the caffeine to take effect. Caffeine acts as an inhibitor that inhibits enzymes in the nervous system insects causing them to become uncoordinated. By applying the repellent to the skin it masks the scent of the body causing the insect to not be able to detect the CO2 released from the body which is what mosquitoes use to find their victims.



GardenRx’s Organic “Homemade-Costs-Pennies” Bug Spray Recipe that Works!

Jerry Baker’s Bug Off!: 2,193 Super Secrets For Battling Bad Bugs…Outcfating Crafty Critters…Evicting Varocious Varmints and Much More! By Jerry Baker

Publish Paper: How Pearls are made

                                            How pearls are made




Pearls are found on the inside of oysters. It’s almost ironic that something so smooth and appealing to the human eye is made from something so rough on the outside which doesn’t make it an eye catcher. Not all oysters produce pearls as most pearls that you may encounter are made from pearl oysters. The oysters that are often eaten are known as true oysters which would produce pearls that resemble grey peas.

 Believe it or not the creation of a pearl is somewhat a mistake. As an oyster feeds, a grain of sand or a parasite of some kind will find its way into the inner body of the oyster (the softer area). This is uncomfortable for the clam as it is unable to remove it, so as a self defence mechanism it secretes from its body a hard yet smooth crystalline substance around the grain of sand in order to protect itself. This substance is called nacre (also referred to as ‘mother of pearl’) that is mainly made up of calcium carbonate the main substance of pearls. Over time the coating of the sand grain becomes larger and larger which results into the pearl. How the clam is able to form high quality pearls such as the ones sold for high prices are unknown as the pearl is also composed of microscopic crystals lined up to each other perfectly so as light passes through the axes of one of the pearls, it is reflected and refracted by the other.






Video on how pearls are formed naturally

Snails, Shellfish, & Other Mollusks by Daniel Gilpin